English version
Flux RSS
Accueil
Accueil > Publications > Ouvrages > A Geoscientist's Guide to Petrophysics

Ouvrages

A Geoscientist's Guide to Petrophysics

A Geoscientist's Guide to Petrophysics (Editions Technip)

A Geoscientist's Guide to Petrophysics

Bernard Zinszner, François-Marie Pellerin

Geoscientists and Engineers taking an interest in Petrophysics, are struck by the contrasting treatment of the Physics Aspects and the Geology Aspects. In most publications, the Physics Aspect prevails. The rock itself is considered as a black-box whose microscopic structure is briefly described as a model sometimes remote from reality.
But if we are to scale up isolated petrophyscial observations to an entire oil reservoir or an aquifer, it is essential to implement the powerful extrapolation tool of geological interpretation. This is clearly based on a good understanding of the relations between the petrophysical parameters studied and the petrological characteristics of the rock considered.
This Geological approach of Petrophysics is at the heart of our project.
 
The book is divided into two sections of different size:
The first section (by far the largest) describes the various petrophysical properties of rocks. Each property is defined, limiting the mathematical formulation to the strict minimum but emphasising the geometrical and therefore petrological parameters governing this property. The description of the measurement methods is restricted to an overview of the principles required for good communication between the geoscientist and the laboratory petrophysicist. For each property, we detail one or two aspects of the relations between petrophysics and geology (e.g. the porosity/permeability relations in carbonate rocks or irregular water tables and stratigraphic traps).
 
The second section concentrates on methodological problems and concerns, above all, the representativeness of the measurements and the size effects. The notions of Representative Elementary Volume, Homogeneity, Anisotropy, Rock Type, etc. provide a better understanding of the problems of up-scaling (Plug, Core, Log Analysis, Well Test). Lastly, we provide a description of several Porous Network investigation methods: Thin section, Pore Cast, Visualization of capillary properties, X-ray tomography.
 

CONTENTS

   

Acknowledgements

V

Picto PDF
Foreword (

PDF - 380 Ko

..)

VII

Nomenclature

XI

Unit conversion factors

XVII

Picto PDF
Table of contents (

PDF - 400 Ko

..)

 

PART 1

PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS WITH PETROLOGY

 

Chapter 1-1

Calculation of Fluid Volumes In Situ (Accumulations): Static Properties

3

1-1.1

Porosity, Mineralogy of the Solid Phase and Compressibility

3

 

1-1.1.1 Porosity: definitions (connected, occluded, effective porosity, etc.)

3

 

1-1.1.2 Porosity measurement principles

5

 

1-1.1.3 Clay porosity

12

 

1-1.1.4 Order of magnitude of porosity in geomaterials

20

 

1-1.1.5 Solid phase density and mineralogy

26

 

1-1.1.6 Effect of stresses on porosity, Compressibility

39

1-1.2

Capillary Pressure in Case of Perfect Wettability

52

1-1.2.1 Definition of perfect wettability and capillary pressure

53

 

1-1.2.2 Capillary pressure curve

56

Picto PDF
Figure 1-1.32

 

Picto PDF

64

1-1.2.4 Capillary pressure curve measurement principle: Restored states, Centrifuge, Mercury Porosimetry

73

 

Picto PDF
Figure 1-1.46

 
 

1-1.2.5 Processing of capillary pressure data

94

 

Picto PDF

102

 

1-1.2.7 Capillary rise: Hirschwald coefficient, Apparent radius of capillary rise

113

 

1-1.2.8 Overview on three-phase capillary equilibria

121

Chapter 1-2

Fluid Recovery and Modelling: Dynamic Properties

123

1-2.1

Intrinsic Permeability

123

1-2.1.1 Definitions and Darcy’s law

123

1-2.1.2 Intrinsic permeability measurement principle

128

1-2.1.3 Geometric parameters affecting permeability and simple models

138

 

Picto PDF

144

1-2.1.5 Effects of stress and temperature on the intrinsic permeability

163

1-2.2

Picto PDF

167

1-2.2.1 Definition and measurement of intermediate wettability

167

 

1-2.2.2 Wettability of reservoir rocks

173

1-2.3

Relative Permeability and End Points

179

1-2.3.1 Overview

179

1-2.3.2 Tentative simplification: search for the most important points on the relative permeability curve

184

1-2.3.3 More information about the “End Points”, wettability effects

186

1-2.3.4 Relative permeability measurement principle

191

   

Chapter 1-3

Log and Geophysical Analysis

199

     

1-3.1

Electrical Properties: Estimation of Hydrocarbon Saturation

199

 

1-3.1.1 Resistivity of rocks saturated with electrolyte: Formation factor

199

 

Picto PDF
Figure 1-3.6

 
 

1-3.1.2 Resistivity of porous media saturated with a two-phase mixture

208

 

1-3.1.3 The special case of clay media

213

 

1-3.1.4 Effect of pressure and temperature on electrical properties

220

1-3.2

Seismic Properties: Effect of Porosity, Lithology and Nature of the Saturating Fluids on the Elastic Wave Velocity

221

 

1-3.2.1 Simplified definitions: moduli, P and S waves, velocities, attenuations

222

 

1-3.2.2 Scale effect: Ultrasonic, Sonic, Seismic frequency bands. Static properties, dynamic properties

227

 

Picto PDF

230

 

Picto PDF

233

 

1-3.2.5 Effect of the saturating fluid: Gassmann equation and its linear approximation as a function of Kfl

236

 

1-3.2.6 Porosity/lithology/velocity empirical relations

239

1-3.3

Petrophysical Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

248

 

1-3.3.1 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), general principles

248

 

1-3.3.2 Potential applications to petrophysics

254

 

Picto PDF
Figure 1-3.33

 

PART 2

SCALE CHANGES AND CHARACTERISATION OF POROUS MEDIA: METHODS AND TECHNIQUES

Chapter 2-1

Measurement Representativeness and Reservoir Characterisation

265

2-1.1

Overview on the Effect of Damage, Stress and Temperature Variations on Petrophysical Characteristics

265

2-1.1.1 Damage to laboratory samples

265

2-1.1.2 Influence of stresses and temperature on petrophysical characteristics

266

2-1.2

Representative Elementary Volume, Homogeneity, Isotropy

272

2-1.2.1 Definition of Representative Elementary Volume (REV)

272

 

Picto PDF
Figure 2-1.4

 

2-1.2.2 Homogeneity and Isotropy

281

2-1.2.3 Continuously variable REV: self similarity and fractal object

288

2-1.3

Scale Changes

293

Picto PDF

294

 

2-1.3.2 From core to well test (“bulk” and “matrix” property)

311

Picto PDF
Figure 2-1.21

 

2-1.4

Rock Typing

317

2-1.4.1 Rock Typing, description and terminology difficulties

 

2-1.4.2 Core Rock Typing

318

2-1.4.3 Log Rock Typing

322

 

Chapter 2-2

Porous Network Observation Techniques

325

2-2.1

Thin Sections and Epoxy Pore Casts

325

2-2.1.1 Impregnation of porous networks by resins

325

2-2.1.2 Observation of thin sections under optical microscope

327

 

2-2.1.3 Observation under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

330

Picto PDF
Figure 2-2.6

 

2-2.2

Visualisation of Fluid Location in Pores

333

2-2.2.1 Direct observations of natural fluids: Cryo-scanning electron microscopy

334

2-2.2.2 Indirect observations using polymerisable liquids or fusible metal

336

2-2.3

X-Ray Tomography

342

 

Picto PDF
Figure 2-2.15

 

2-2.3.1 The medical scanner

344

2-2.3.2 Microtomography devices

347

2-2.4

Mineralogical Analysis Applied to Petrophysics: X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence

349

2-2.4.1 Some reminders about mineralogy/crystallography

350

2-2.4.2 Laboratory techniques

351

References

357

Porosity Terms Glossary-Index

365

Subject Index

371

Author Index

381

>> Order this book (Editions TECHNIP website)


 

L'espace Découverte vous propose des clés pour comprendre les enjeux énergétiques du 21ème siècle liés à un développement durable de notre planète.

Liste de liens

  • Imprimer la page